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What is Structural Engineering and What do Structural Engineers Do?

What is Structural Engineering and What do Structural Engineers Do?

Structural engineering is a specialized field within civil engineering. It focuses on using the principles of physics, mathematics, and real-world experience to create safe and reliable designs for the essential supporting elements of human-made structures. Nowadays, it’s backed by a vast and comprehensive body of knowledge that allows us to precisely anticipate how various shapes and materials will perform under different types of stress and pressure. Interestingly, these principles have been applied for millennia, as seen in the construction of iconic ancient structures like the pyramids in Egypt and the Acropolis in Greece.


Structural engineers are trained professionals who are responsible for making sure that the structures we use in our daily lives, like bridges and tall buildings, are safe, and stable and don’t collapse under applied loads. They do this by applying their technical knowledge to specify different types of construction materials in various shapes and geometries and design structures that can withstand the pressures and stresses of their environment such as gravity loads, storms, and earthquakes.

In my role as a structural engineer, I collaborate closely with clients to grasp the project’s purpose, ensuring a secure, feasible, and cost-effective solution for its successful completion. Typically, the structural design process for a building can be segmented into three key stages: load calculation, structural analysis, and design.

Industry standards and building codes guide the estimation of factors like structure weight and potential loads from elements such as snow, wind, and seismic activity for a building’s specific function. After identifying these loads, structural engineers conduct a thorough analysis to evaluate their impact on individual structural elements. Specialized software is often used to analyze various types of structures, with a recommendation to validate the software-generated results using fundamental engineering principles and basic structural analysis formulas. The forces and stresses derived from this analysis software are then utilized to design critical structural elements, including the floor system, vertical supports, foundations, and other vital components of the building.

As a dedicated structural engineer, I prioritize the safety of the public. In relation to the buildings and infrastructure integral to our society, the potential consequences of a structural failure can be devastating. This is why safety factors are incorporated into structural designs, accounting for uncertainties in load assumptions and unexpected deficiencies in construction materials or workmanship.


Structural engineers are engaged in projects where there are plans to alter a building’s use, add additional floors, or implement significant expansions. It’s crucial to note that making alterations to any structural component without consulting a professional engineer can lead to severe damage or, in some cases, partial or complete collapse of the building.

Additionally, structural engineers are called upon when structural damage arises from sources like fire, corrosion, environmental degradation, impact, or other forms of wear and tear. These issues can potentially weaken a structure’s capacity and present a threat to public safety. When approached for an assessment of an existing building, a structural engineer conducts a visual inspection, evaluates the load-bearing elements’ integrity, addresses concerns about occupant safety, recommends repair methods, and provides structural details to restore the structure to its original state, capable of withstanding applied loads.


No, architects and engineers play distinct yet crucial roles in the design of a building. For instance, in a residential building, if the aesthetics are pleasing and the interior spaces feel inviting and comfortable, credit goes to the architect for a well-designed building. On the other hand, the work of the structural engineer is evident in ensuring the structure remains stable under various loading conditions. Regardless of external factors like wind or heavy snow, the building remains secure, providing a safe and comfortable environment for occupants.

In summary, structural engineering is indispensable in a society dependent on various structures. Engineers, especially those specializing in structural engineering, hold a vital role in prioritizing public safety and welfare. Their duty is to ensure the best interests of the community are always at the forefront. If you have any questions regarding structural engineering, please feel free to leave a comment below!

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  • Clare Martin
    October 18, 2023, 12:04 pm REPLY

    I’m investing in a high-rise condominium building here in New Jersey, but before we can begin its construction this January, we need to find a structural engineer who can help us out with this project soon. I am thankful you explained to us that it is the role of a structural engineer to ensure tall buildings stay safe and stable so that they can withstand the pressures and stresses of their environment, such as earthquakes and storms. I’ll keep this in mind while I look for a structural engineering firm in New Jersey to hire for this building project soon.

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